Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
Upon deregistration as an investment company, the Company's status changed to an operating company from an investment company since it no longer met the assessment of an investment company under the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification Topic 946 (“ASC 946”). The Company discontinued applying the guidance in ASC 946 and began to account for the change in status prospectively by accounting for its investments in accordance with other U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) topics as of the date of the change in status.
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements of the Company are presented on the accrual basis of accounting in accordance with GAAP for interim financial information, and in accordance with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they may not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (including normal recurring accruals) considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included. Operating results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2019. The consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2018 has been derived from the Company’s audited financial statements as of that date, but does not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. For further information, refer to the consolidated financial statements and footnotes thereto included in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018.
Certain amounts from the prior year have been reclassified to conform to current year presentation as described below.
Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash
The Company’s cash is deposited with financial institutions located throughout the United States and at times may exceed federally insured limits. The Company considers all highly liquid investments, which may include money market fund shares, with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Restricted cash is comprised of escrowed funds deposited with a bank relating to capital expenditures.
The carrying amount reported on the balance sheet for cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash approximates fair value.
The Company has elected to be treated as a REIT under the IRC. In order to maintain its qualification as a REIT, among other things, the Company is required to distribute at least 90% of its REIT taxable income to its stockholders and meet certain tests regarding the nature of its income and assets. As a REIT, the Company is not subject to federal income tax with respect to that portion of its income which meets certain criteria and is distributed annually to stockholders. The Company plans to continue to operate so that it meets the requirements for taxation as a REIT. Many of these requirements, however, are highly technical and complex. If the Company were to fail to meet these requirements, it would be subject to federal income tax. In managements’ opinion, the requirements to maintain these elections are being fulfilled. The Company is subject to certain state and local taxes.
The Company recognizes the tax benefits of uncertain tax positions only where the position is “more likely than not” to be sustained assuming examination by tax authorities. The Company has reviewed its tax positions and has concluded that no liability for unrecognized tax benefits should be recorded related to uncertain tax positions taken on federal, state, and local income tax returns for open tax years (2016 – 2018), or is expected to be taken in the Company’s 2019 tax returns.
Legislation, commonly known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”), was signed into law on December 22, 2017. The TCJA makes significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rates for taxation of individuals and corporations (including REITs), generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017.
Marketable Equity Securities
Investments in equity securities that have readily determinable fair values are accounted for equity securities measured at fair value. Gains or losses from changes in the fair value of equity securities are recorded in net income, until the investment is sold or otherwise disposed. The specific identification method is used to determine the realized gain or loss on investments sold or otherwise disposed.
Fair value is determined using a valuation hierarchy generally by reference to an active trading market, using quoted closing or bid prices. Judgment is used to ascertain if a formerly active market has become inactive and in determining fair values when markets have become inactive.
Real Estate Assets
Real estate assets are carried at the appreciated value as of January 19, 2016, the effective date of the Company’s change in status to an operating company, less accumulated depreciation from that date. Purchases subsequent to the effective date of the change in status are carried at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Direct and allowable internal costs associated with the development, construction, renovation, and improvement of real estate assets are capitalized. Property taxes and other costs associated with development incurred during a construction period are capitalized. A construction period begins when expenditures for a real estate asset have been made and activities that are necessary to prepare the asset for its intended use are in progress. A construction period ends when an asset is substantially complete and ready for its intended use.
Acquisition costs are accounted for in accordance with Accounting Standard Update ("ASU") No. 2017-01 Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business, which was adopted on January 1, 2018 and are generally capitalized. When properties are acquired, the purchase price is allocated to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on estimated fair values. Allocations to land, building and improvements, and equipment are recorded based upon their respective fair values as estimated by management.
In allocating the purchase price for an acquisition, the Company determines whether the acquisition includes intangible assets or liabilities. The Company allocates a portion of the purchase price to an intangible asset attributed to the value of in-place leases. This intangible is generally amortized to expense over the expected remaining term of the respective leases. Substantially all of the leases in place at acquired properties are at market rates, as the majority of the leases are month-to-month contracts.
Internal and external transaction costs associated with acquisitions or dispositions of real estate, as well as repairs and maintenance costs, are charged to expense as incurred. Major replacements and betterments that improve or extend the life of the asset are capitalized and depreciated over their estimated useful lives. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the buildings and improvements, which are generally between 5 and 39 years.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company carries all derivative financial instruments on the balance sheet at fair value. Fair value of derivatives is determined by reference to observable prices that are based on inputs not quoted on active markets, but corroborated by market data. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative instrument depends on whether the derivative has been designated and qualifies as part of a hedging relationship. The Company’s use of derivative instruments has been limited to interest cap agreements. The fair values of derivative instruments are included in prepaid expenses and other assets in the accompanying balance sheets. For derivative instruments not designated as cash flow hedges, the unrealized gains and losses are included in interest expense in the accompanying statements of operations. For derivatives designated as cash flow hedges, the effective portion of the changes in the fair value of the derivatives is initially reported in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in the Company’s balance sheets and subsequently reclassified into earnings when the hedged transaction affects earnings. The valuation of interest rate cap agreements is determined using widely accepted valuation techniques. This analysis reflects the contractual terms of derivatives, including the period to maturity, and uses observable market-based inputs, including interest rate curves.
Accounts Payable and Accrued Expenses
Accounts payable and accrued expenses generally consist of property tax accruals, unearned rental income, and trade payables. At September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, accounts payable and accrued expenses included a $900,000 contingent payment in connection with the purchase of a property made in 2016.
Revenue and Expense Recognition
Revenues from properties, which are primarily composed of rental income earned pursuant to month-to-month leases for storage space, as well as associated late charges and administrative fees, are recognized as earned. Promotional discounts reduce rental income over the promotional period, which is generally one month. Ancillary revenues from sales of merchandise and tenant insurance and other income are recognized when earned.
The Company accrues for property tax expense based upon actual amounts billed and, in some circumstances, estimates and historical trends when bills or assessments have not been received from the taxing authorities or such bills and assessments are in dispute. If these estimates are incorrect, the timing and amount of expense recognition could be incorrect. Cost of operations and general and administrative expense are expensed as incurred.
Financial assets that are exposed to credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and certain portions of accounts receivable including rents receivable from our tenants. Cash and cash equivalents are on deposit with highly rated commercial banks.
Evaluation of Asset Impairment
The Company evaluates its real estate assets and intangible assets consisting of in-place leases for impairment quarterly. If there are indicators of impairment and we determine that an asset is not recoverable from future undiscounted cash flows to be received through the asset’s remaining life (or, if earlier, the expected disposal date), we record an impairment charge to the extent the carrying amount exceeds the asset’s estimated fair value or net proceeds from expected disposal.
The Company evaluates goodwill for impairment annually and whenever relevant events, circumstances, and other related factors indicate that fair value may be less that carrying amounts. If it is determined that the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds the amount that would be allocated to goodwill if the reporting unit were acquired for estimated fair value, an impairment charge is recorded.
The measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all stock-based payment awards to employees are based on estimated fair values. Awards granted are valued at fair value and any compensation expense is recognized over the service periods of each award. For awards granted which contain a graded vesting schedule and the only condition for vesting is a service condition, compensation cost is recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period as if the award was, in substance, a single award. For awards granted for which vesting is subject to a performance condition, compensation cost is recognized over the requisite service period if and when the Company concludes it is probable that the performance condition will be achieved.
Loan Procurement Costs
In accordance with ASU No. 2015-03, Loan procurement costs, net are presented as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of the related debt liability. If there is not an associated debt liability recorded on the consolidated balance sheets, loan procurement costs related to the line of credit are recorded as an asset net of accumulated amortization. Loan procurement costs associated with the Company's revolving credit facility are shown as Line of credit issuance costs, net of amortization on the Company's consolidated balance sheets. The costs are amortized over the estimated life of the related debt.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could materially differ from management’s estimates.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-12 – Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities. The purpose of this updated guidance is to better align a company’s financial reporting for hedging activities with the economic objectives of those activities. The standard became effective on January 1, 2019. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02 - Leases (Topic 842), which sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both parties to a contract (i.e., lessees and lessors). The new standard requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either financing or operating leases based on the principle of whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase by the lessee. This classification will determine whether lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight line basis over the term of the lease, respectively. A lessee is also required to record a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term of greater than 12 months regardless of their classification. Leases with a term of 12 months or less will be accounted for similar to existing guidance for operating leases today. The new standard requires lessors to account for leases using an approach that is substantially equivalent to existing guidance for sales-type leases, direct financing leases and operating leases. The standard became effective on January 1, 2019. This standard will not have a material impact on operating results or financial condition, because all lease revenues are derived from month to month self storage leases and the Company does not incur a material amount of lease expense.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef